Repetition interests me in the context of traumatic memory. Trauma is characterized by a disjunction between what is happening and what"I" is able to consciously understand. Traumatic experiences cannot be processed, the subject that is supposed to experience them dissolves around them instead.
One of the result is that since the thing can't have happened, it keeps happening, repeating itself.
" I do not repeat because I repress. I repress because I repeat, I forget because I repeat. I repress, because I can live certain things or certain experiences only in the mode of repetition."
Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition.
Repetition has always been central to my practice. I mainly work with drawing and printmaking (which as a process also deals with copying, duplicating, repeating).
In everyday life repetition is often associated to the realm of monotony and banality. However, in a broader spatial- temporal level repetition is not always predictable, sometimes dimensions appear to divide and duplicate and sometimes we experience the uncanny feeling of déjà vu as things come around again. It is a force far stranger and complex than we might ever imagine. David Hume  proposed that repetition changes nothing in the object repeated but does change something in the mind which contemplates it. Likewise, for me each pencil mark or each printed layer, is not just an inscription of the drawing on the paper's surface but it's also a projection through time and an imprint of an inner journey.
In Untitled (2014), the black rectangle functions as a barrier that disallows a penetrating gaze. The multiple layers of black (screen-printed again and again) and the way the black shape suffocates what is pictured, aim in removing, separating the image from the event it depicts, allowing in this way to the viewer to re-imagine and recover the image. There is definitely something uneasy about the relationship to be had with this image.
In Refugees set off for the beach (2014) I used various silver paint markers with different opacity and nib width, in order to obscure and re-render the image to varying degrees and create different tonalities within the image. My effort focuses on subtly suppressing certain elements of the picture in an effort to accentuate their very presence. Because of the way the image is made (miniscule silver pen marks that reflect the light), the viewer is led to perceive obscured past events affected by changing lighting conditions and the angle by which they are seen.
Human behavior is mostly determined by repeating patterns (routines), triggered by certain stimuli. Learning and recognizing these patterns allows us to function in an increasingly complex environment. Future actions don't have to be newly developed as they become necessary since we can draw from an archive of previously learned actions and previously encountered stimuli. The counterpart to this man-made code of behavior is the actual range of action – all possible actions, rather than just the one the human brain determines to be the most accurate for a certain stimulus. In the beginning I studied the human need (and desire) to constantly categorize it's environment in order to maintain functionality and the resulting discrepancy between objective reality and social fact. Soon I discovered that my own need to categorize in many instances had nothing to do with the preservation of functionality. I was categorizing for the sake of categorization- collecting repeating moments, as if at some point I would have a bigger understanding of what was going on around me. I was using the only system that I had at hand, trying to understand processes that perhaps could never be explained through this system.
Repetetive processes always include thoughts of recreating reality. In our mind we have recourse of a collective archive, which enables us to associate similar perceptions of things. So in my work I requote and trace back those kind of inner pictures.
Where I find the repetitive system within in the nature, trees in the forest, mountains in the countryside or is the movement of the water and the sea. Nature never stops, it runs in cycles, always transient, always recussing. All of my works are related to nature. When I visit a forest I often feel like I want to take it home and share it with others, but that would be impossible. Through art I learned to express emotions, which gave me a way to create a representation of the things I experience in nature.
My concepts are generally driven by scrutiny and questioning of general human behavior and are often developed by way of repetition employing comparison, parody, irony and humour.
The four images I am showing here in response to the theme of 'repea't all operate by enabling comparison by way of repetition. 'Attitudism' 1983-87. In which I have asked artist friends to pose for me exhibiting the main universally recognised facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust and interest. I have then presented the outcome in a grid which reveals aspects of the individual artists characters by way of their attitude in response to my request.
With '200 Tongues' 2003 the gesture of extruding the tongue is repeated to illustrate how it has shifted from its original expression of rebuke toward provocation or ecstasy and how this is backed up by its proliferation in media and advertising. War and Peace 2009 is again in consideration of the mixed messages received from common gestures, By bringing together the different eras and cultures within which the V sign has been and still is used, from antiquity through to its contemporary use, I'm debunking the taboo that had been associated with the gesture by rendering it as virtually meaningless.
'The Beauty Contest' is working in a similar way with the comparison of statues, again across time and cultures. In this instant via repetition it is suggesting that the originality and craft within the
sculptures has rendered the viewers perception of art to that of a beauty contest.
When I received the proposal from the curator about the exhibition “Repetitive/spiral”, I knew that it had a bit in common with my current works, although I hadn’t produced my art on the basis of the theme. However, what is interesting is that this is often the pattern: artworks being reinterpreted. If you think about it carefully, such harmony may be derived from the basic principles of printmaking. Laozi’s “one gives rise to two, two to three, and three to everything” and Shi Tao’s “one painting” theories both share the same conceptual interpretation. The repetition in printmaking has two results: one is a stylistic change, i.e. from traditional quantitative change to change in quality; the other is surgery-like genomic sequencing, from the inception of the work, to abrupt changes in the art medium. Of the two, I opted for the latter. Perhaps such a theme reflects the impact on our individuality of the entropic process of the society.
As a medium of art creation, prints’ pluralistic and technical production vividly portrays the connotations and extensions of the theme: repetitive and spiral.
Several dozens of repetitive canvases are being obscured and hidden each by a different language, with identical contents being reduced and each canvas becoming a bit more independent, before a new visual equilibrium is established on the basis of destruction. Each canvas is fully autonomous, with no images covered, reminding the viewers of the origin of the whole series.
“重复”构建期待和期望。重复可以表现为“双重” —— 一次性复制对二元关系提出直接质疑：真实与复制、原件与仿制品，原作的独一无二与复制件的永恒存在。当重复表现为多次复制时，它建立的是一系列的反复，从而引发连续叠加的设想。
Pergamon Foil (2014—现持续)
Pergamon Foil像子弹一般的形状来自于我之前的另一幅画作。在那幅作品里，这个形状给画面赋予了一种方向感，起到了构图的作用。而在Pergamon Foil里，每片形状中的各个图像来源于锡纸的放大图，以及美国艺术家Larry Bell近期的新光线投射作品的截图。
Repetition is the building up of anticipation and expectation. Repetition can be conveyed as a double – a duplication that raises direct questions around the real versus the copy; the original versus imitation; and the unique versus immortality of the reproduced. To duplicate more than one time, a repetitive field is established, from which assumptions are evoked to suggest continuous reiteration.
Fields of repetitive
motifs are often built in my work, to construct a ground layer within which I then “attack” by bringing in other disparate, context-specific
motifs. This is to look at how elements from different contexts confront each other, and how new hierarchies and associations emerge when disparate motifs are juxtaposed together.
Often, parts of a
figurative motif used in one of my works are extracted and employed again in subsequent works. Through this, I want to examine how the audience may relate to a repeated re-occurrence of the same
motif or image, when clues are only partially given. Moreover, it is to explore the changes in distance between the audience and my work, when the transformation and reorganization of previously
employed motifs become perceivable throughout the works.
Hence, in my work, repetition serves as a way to challenge assumptions. Through excessive repetition or duplicating an image, I want to direct the viewer to re-think the imagery in front of them. Repetition allows a distortion, or makes redundant the original meaning and significance of the motifs in question. Works thus become more about painting, about space, rather than a description of the motifs that are repeated.
Pergamon Foil (2014-present)
Pergamon Foil is an ongoing project. The shapes have been continuously produced since 2014. The installation configuration for this work, including the number and arrangement of the shapes, is site-specific.
The bullet-like form of the shapes is appropriated from a previous painting. This shape was originally a compositional solution to that painting, where it provided a sense of direction in the painting. The painted image in each shape comprise of enlarged photographs of crumpled aluminium foil, and also enlarged sections of Larry Bell's new light interference paintings.
More shapes are continuously added to this ongoing project. This allows the building up of expectation of continuity and sameness through repetition. However, each of the painted image in Pergamon Foil is individual and never repeats. This duality is also iterated through the painted aluminium foil in the work, as when aluminium foil is crumpled and thus “broken”, it still exists as one entity. Does repetition propel a sense of wholeness through its projection of expectation, or does it actually highlight difference and singularity when one realises its role in devising such expectations? The work examines the authority of the artist in re-employing visual references within one’s practice, as well as the role of repetition in works of art.
重复，能生长出离一个既定的时间。这个过程由一个模板（底片）开始，而模版终 会成为多余的、废弃的一块材料被扔进垃圾箱。 然而其间的衍生物便自成体系成 就了一番新的天地。以迈克尔斯诺 (Michael Snow) 的作品《行走的女人》(Walking Women)中的模版为例，由这些剪切图形衍生而来的雕塑和摄影作品才完成了艺术 家的意图，表达着空间及时序关系。斯诺曾写道：“我任意地推进着我任意选择的 主体：它的用意是不可预见的。机运。我抓住机会把抽象艺术中发生的事物‘带向 人格化’。”去重复就是去稳固，去确认，去扩展，从而把我们的思路赶出他固有 的区域。 所有的事物都在行进当中，无论是我们创造的事物还是创造我们的事物。重复的动 作从某种程度上来讲埋藏了变化，掩盖了那些重复中生动细微又隐蔽的个体革新。 重复呼唤一双敏锐的眼，一双能观察到微小动态的眼。我希望我的作品是这样一双 眼，带着观者去看那些不可预见。
Repetition is about stemming out of its own time. The process of a repetition starts with a stencil (the negative) that later becomes the forgotten bit of material that gets chucked in a bin. It is the derivatives that form a brand new universe. Michael Snow’s cutout Walking Women for instance, the sculptures themselves became representations of a spatial and sequential relationship. Snow once wrote “I arbitrarily continue with an arbitrarily chosen subject: it was not designed for uses that could be foreseen. Chance. I take a chance ‘draw personification’ of things that happened in the abstract art.” (The collected Writings of Michael Snow: The Michael Snow Project) To repeat is to empower, to confirm, to expand, and to drive our thoughts out of its set domain.
Everything is on the go, either the thing that we create or the thing that created us. The gesture of repeating buries the procedure of self-transformation to a certain level where it is also proposing a vivid micro view of this mild revolution through its hidden modification of individuality. Repetition is screaming for a pair of keen eyes, a pair that could scrutinize its subtle movements and departures.
 Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature